Microscopic Photos drawing by Lizzie Harper
A pencil drawing by Lizzie Harper (Ballocephala sphaerospora parasitizing tartigrade, see Lizzie Harper website).
Tartigrades are known to survive under extreme conditions such as high heat, low temperatures, wide pressure gradients and even a journey to space. However, they are not free from parasites here on earth. The following photos and references show how this hardy creature can succumb to fungi.
Photos are from a collection on wet wood near a stream in PEI. There was only one small colony on the wood, captured in the following photos
Barron George, 2013. Ballocephala sphaerospora. Fungi Image Collection U of Guelph The Atrium website.
Dreschler, Charles. 1951. An Entomophthoraceous tartigrade parasite producing small conidia on propulsive cells in spicate heads. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 78: 183-200.
Harper, Lizzie. lizzieharper.co.uk website
Mills Danielle, 2014. Ballocephala sphaerospora. Tommy Leung Parasite of the Day website (dailyparasite.blogspot.com.)
Pohland and Bernard, 1978. A new species of Entomphthorales parasitizing tartigrades. Mycologia 70: 130-139.
Richardson MJ, 1970. Ballocephala verrucospora. TBMS 55: 307-309.
Saikawa et al. 1994. Electron microscopy on infection of tartigrades by Ballocephala sphaerospora and B. verrucospora conidia. Trans. Myc. Soc. Japan 33: 305-311.